Monday, October 15, 2018

A Revolutionary Revisioning: Natural Autoimmunity as the Master Conductor of Homeostasis

A Revolutionary Revisioning: Natural Autoimmunity as the Master Conductor of Homeostasis: What if everything we thought we knew about autoantibodies, which are pathologically elevated in autoimmune diseases, was wrong? Rather than a biomarker of deranged immunoregulation, novel research is uncovering that antibodies directed against self are an essential physiological phenomena, mandatory for homeodynamics.

Fisetin

What Are the Benefits of Fisetin?

Written by Dr. Joseph Mercola

STORY AT-A-GLANCE

  • The flavonoid fisetin, which is responsible for the pigment of fruits and vegetables like apples, cucumbers, onions and strawberries, again has been called out for its potential antiaging and neuroprotective properties
  • In experiments involving lab mice, fisetin was shown to eliminate senescent cells — cells that contribute to aging because they have lost their ability to reproduce due to oxidative damage and other cellular stressors
  • Among the health benefits of fisetin, it has been shown to encourage anti-inflammatory action, help prevent cancer and protect your brain function; fisetin can also cross your blood-brain barrier
  • The top food source of fisetin is strawberries, but you’d have to eat at least 37 whole, organic berries at a time to receive a decent amount of the health-boosting properties attributed to this flavonoid
  • Clinical trials are underway at the Mayo Clinic, which may lead to fisetin becoming more widely available and embraced as a dietary supplement
Research on a flavonoid called fisetin, which contributes to the pigment of fruits and vegetables like apples, cucumbers, grapes, onions, persimmons and strawberries, has been called out for its potential antiaging properties. In experiments performed on lab mice, fisetin was shown to eliminate senescent cells, which accumulate as you age and can be harmful to your body.
While fisetin was discovered years ago, it is one of many diet-derived antioxidants being increasingly investigated for its health-promoting effects. As a plant-based flavonoid, fisetin can be consumed for long periods of time without any known adverse effects. Let’s take a closer look at this promising plant pigment.

What Is Fisetin?

If you’ve not yet heard of fisetin, you are not alone. After all, there are about 6,000 flavonoids from which to choose and each of them contributes to the colorful pigments of fruits, vegetables, herbs and medicinal plants.1 Beyond their role in producing pigments, flavonoids are also antioxidants.
With the continued focus on the value of antioxidants, individual flavonoids are increasingly being recognized for the positive effects they can have on human health. Now, a study published in EBioMedicine2 suggests consuming fisetin at high levels may help you live a longer, healthier life.
In fact, the research, which involved lab mice, suggests the consumption of fisetin may extend your life by as much as 10 percent. Researchers from Scripps Research Institute, Mayo Clinic and University of Minnesota evaluated 10 flavonoids to determine their senolytic activity, calling out fisetin as the most potent.

Fisetin Is Prized for Its Role in Killing Senescent Cells

Though you may not have heard of them, senescent cells are cells that through oxidative damage and aging have lost their ability to reproduce. The study authors defined senescence as a “tumor-suppressor mechanism activated in stressed cells to prevent replication of damaged DNA.”3  
They note past studies involving genetic and pharmacologic approaches have shown senescent cells to play a causal role in accelerating aging and age-related diseases. In fact, before putting fisetin to the test, the scientists published research in Aging Cell in 2015 highlighting the flavonoid quercetinfor its senolytic activity.4,5
When administered with the chemotherapy drug dasatinib, quercetin was shown to improve age-related conditions such as cardiovascular disease, frailty and osteoporosis. About those results, the study authors said, “The combination of dasatinib and quercetin was effective in eliminating senescent MEFs (mouse embryonic fibroblasts).
In vivo, this combination reduced senescent cell burden in chronologically aged, radiation‐exposed and progeroid [syndrome-affected] mice.”6 The researchers also noted “the efficacy of senolytics for alleviating symptoms of frailty and extending healthspan.”7
In terms of underscoring the value of senolytics like fisetin, another study, published in July 2018, affirmed that “senescent cells can cause physical dysfunction and decreased survival even in young mice, while senolytics can enhance remaining health[span] and life span in old mice.”8

Fisetin Shown to Promote Longer Healthspans in Lab Mice

Scientists are interested in fisetin mainly for its usefulness in eliminating senescent cells, an action that could encourage antiaging and promote longer, healthier lives. Senior study author Laura Niedernhofer, director of the Institute on the Biology of Aging and Metabolism at the University of Minnesota (UM), told Newsweek:9
“We’re looking for drugs that can kill these damaged senescent cells that are very toxic to our bodies and accumulate as we get older. It turns out that fisetin is a natural product that actually we were able to show very selectively and effectively kills these senescent cells, or at least dials back their bad secretions or inflammatory proteins.”
According to Newsweek, as senescent cells accumulate in your body, they can cause both inflammation and tissue degradation.10 Acting as a senolytic agent, fisetin may be able to kill senescent cells in humans just as it has been shown to do in aging mice.
Paul Robbins, Ph.D., UM professor of biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics and associate director of the Institute, commented:11
“The mice reached an extension of life span and healthspan of over 10 percent, that’s pretty remarkable. At the dose we used, the question is if we could give them a lower dose or more infrequently. That’s a theoretical advantage of using these types of drugs that can clear the damaged cells — you can use them intermittently.”

Fruits and Vegetables Containing Fisetin

Even though fisetin is naturally occurring in a number of fruits and vegetables, you will likely not be able to obtain therapeutic amounts of this flavonoid from food alone. While scientists continue working out the proper dosing for fisetin, there is, however, little harm in — and possibly much benefit to — adding some of these fisetin-containing foods to your diet:12,13
FoodFisetin in micrograms/gram (g)
Strawberry
160
26.9
Persimmon
10.6
Lotus root
5.8
4.8
Grape
3.9
Kiwi
2.0
0.6
Cucumber (with skin)
0.1
As you can see, strawberries are by far the best food source of fisetin, but you’d need to eat about 37 whole berries to get a decent amount of benefits. (One supplement brand, which I cannot endorse, even uses the wording “37 strawberries” in their product name.) Obtaining an optimal amount of this, or other flavonoids, from food sources is, unfortunately, not always realistic.
While a small 1998 Japanese study14 estimated the average daily intake of fisetin to be just 0.4 milligrams (mg) in that country, figures are not yet available to track fisetin consumption by Americans. Additionally, recommended dietary intakes for fisetin do not exist.
For now, as noted by Robbins, knowing that fisetin can have a positive impact on damaged cells is good news even as more work, including a series of human medical trials, is needed.
He stated, “These results suggest that we can extend the period of health — termed ‘healthspan’ — even toward the end of life. But there are still many questions to address, including the right dosage, for example.”15

Some of the Health Benefits of Fisetin

As noted in the Journal of Nutritional Science, the interest in the health-boosting effects of flavonoids, including fisetin, continues to grow. The study authors asserted:16
“Flavonoids are now considered as an indispensable component in a variety of nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, medicinal and cosmetic applications. This is attributed to their antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties, coupled with their capacity to modulate key cellular enzyme function.”
Already, a number of fisetin supplement brands exist, touting some of the health benefits noted below.17 To date, fisetin has been shown to:
Encourage anti-inflammatory action — Fisetin has been shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines. While noting a flavonol-rich compound containing fisetin could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, one group of study authors noted:18
“In experimental inflammation-related models, flavonol-rich RVHxR (Rhus verniciflua Stokes) and fisetin have shown significant anti-inflammatory activities on vascular permeability, leukocyte migration and cellular immunity.
Also, flavonol-rich RVHxR and fisetin treatments significantly reduced the incidence and severity of [the] collagen-induced arthritis model.
These results suggest RVHxR and its major compound fisetin have shown potent suppressive effects on some inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and angiogenic factor in [Interleukin 1 beta]-stimulated rheumatoid arthritis FLS (fibroblast-like synoviocytes) and inflammatory in vivo models.”
Help prevent cancer — Given its well-known anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties, fisetin can play a role in helping to prevent cancer. To date, among other effects, fisetin has been shown to:
  • Activate particular signaling pathways to induce cell death (apoptosis) in cervical cancer cells19
  • Exhibit antigrowth potential against lung cancer cells20 and prostate cancer cells21
  • Inhibit melanoma cell growth22
  • Induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells by inhibiting certain signaling pathways23
Inhibit bone-damaging glycation — Glycation, a process in which sugar molecules bond to certain proteins and lipids in your body, results in bone-damaging Advanced Glycation End (AGE) products.
According to natural health expert Vivian Goldschmidt, founder of the Save Institute, a branch of which focuses on osteoporosis prevention, these molecules destroy collagen, the cartilage-like material that gives your bones tensile strength.24 Due to its beneficial interaction with proteins found in your body, one study indicates fisetin arrests the glycation process.25
Maintain your glutathione levels — According to a 2009 study published in the journal Genes & Nutrition, fisetin has been shown to help maintain your glutathione levels, particularly during times of increased oxidative stress.26
The study authors stated, “Fisetin not only has direct antioxidant activity but it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione, the major intracellular antioxidant.”27 Goldschmidt asserts glutathione “has the most electrons of any antioxidant, so it can ‘donate’ more of these electrons to free radicals in order to neutralize them.”28
Protect your brain function — A 2014 study published in Aging Cell29 suggests fisetin may have the ability to stave off age-related memory associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. The researchers suggested fisetin can act on many of the target pathways implicated in Alzheimer’s disease.
They also found oral administration in mice aged 3 to 12 months prevented the development of learning and memory deficits. The study authors suggested “our results demonstrate fisetin, a compound that activates multiple, well-defined neuroprotective pathways, may provide a new approach to the treatment of [Alzheimer’s disease].”30
As noted in the featured video, fisetin is one of the few substances capable of crossing your blood-brain barrier. (Curcumin, a polyphenol with neuroprotective qualities, is another.)
Slow the progression of Huntington’s disease — In animal studies, fisetin has been found to slow the progression of Huntington's disease, an ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive, motor and psychiatric symptoms.
Pathways implicated in the disease include those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and, particularly, the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) cascade. Based on 2011 experiments involving three disease models, fisetin was shown to reduce the impact of the mutant huntingtin gene.31
The study authors noted both fisetin and resveratrol activated the ERK pathway, “thus suggesting that polyphenols and/or their derivatives might be useful for the treatment of [Huntington’s disease].”32
Stabilize resveratrol — Similar to other flavonoids, fisetin has been shown to inhibit the hepatic and duodenal sulphation of resveratrol,33 thus improving the bioavailability of this powerful anti-inflammatory polyphenol found in red wine and the skins of certain fruits.
Says Goldschmidt, “Fisetin acts as a shield for resveratrol, slowing its breaking down and being metabolized in the liver. Thus, fisetin actually increases the amount of resveratrol in the blood.”34

What’s Next for Fisetin?

Fisetin is currently undergoing clinical trials at Mayo Clinic, which means some more conclusive information about recommended dosing could become available at some point in the future. One of the current trials35 seeks to evaluate markers of frailty and inflammation, as well as bone resorption and insulin resistance in older postmenopausal women.
The study involves 40 women, ages 70 to 90, who are affected by gait disturbance. Half of the women are receiving an oral dose of 20 mg of fisetin per kilogram of body weight per day for two consecutive days, for two consecutive months, while the other half is receiving a placebo according to the same time schedule.
The trial began in February 2018 and will conclude in June 2020. According to the researchers, “Positive results of this study would lead to the development of a larger clinical trial examining the effects of this intervention on age-related dysfunction.”36
Given the many health benefits of fisetin, I highly recommend you regularly add a serving of organic strawberries (or another fisetin-containing food) to your diet. Given the fact a 1-cup serving (152 g) of strawberry halves contains just 3.8 g of fructose, you can easily incorporate this delicious, nutritious fruit into your eating plan and still moderate your fructose levels.
As you may recall, I advise you limit fructose from all sources, including whole fruit, to 25 mg a day if you are healthy and less than 15 mg if you are dealing with a chronic illness like cancer or diabetes.
Also, when buying strawberries from the store, keep in mind conventional varieties are sprayed with a number of toxic pesticides, including chemicals known to cause cancer and reproductive damage, so be sure to purchase organic and wash them well before eating.

If you sit
just long enough
with sadness, fear or longing
or some strange energy or urge you can’t even name
if you sit in a place of no hope and no expectation
if you open your heart wide in meditation
 
the sadness eventually softens
the fear becomes intimate
its imagined edges and boundaries dissolving into the vastness
and it reveals its deep intelligence and benevolent nature
 
for at the core of everything we run away from
is everything we long for
but we’ll never know
if we keep
running.
 
- Jeff Foster
 

10/14/18 11pm Weekly Earthquake Forecast Dutchsinse

Sunday, October 14, 2018

10/14/18 1pm Earthquake Update Dutchsinse

10/13/2018 -- New Deep Large Earthquake (M6.7) -- Earthquake watch next ...

10/13/18 5pm Earthquake Update Dutchsinse

Stanford Hospital's Dr. Ian Carroll on Nerve Pain

Epigenetic Memories are Passed Down 14 Successive Generations, Game-Changing Research Reveals

Epigenetic Memories are Passed Down 14 Successive Generations, Game-Changing Research Reveals

The past of our ancestors lives on through us: Groundbreaking research illustrates how parental experience is not only epigenetically imprinted onto offspring, but onto an unprecedented number of future generations. Rather than occurring over the elongated time scale of millions of years, genetic change can transpire in real biological time through nanoparticles known as exosomes.
Until recently, it was believed that our genes dictate our destiny. That we are slated for thediseases that will ultimately beset us based upon the pre-wired indecipherable code written in stone in our genetic material. The burgeoning field of epigenetics, however, is overturning these tenets, and ushering in a school of thought where nurture, not nature, is seen to be the predominant influence when it comes to genetic expression and our freedom from or affliction by chronic disease.
Epigenetics: The Demise of Biological Determinism
Epigenetics, or the study of the physiological mechanisms that silence or activate genes, encompasses processes which alter gene function without changing the sequence of nucleotide base pairs in our DNA. Translated literally to mean “in addition to changes in genetic sequence,” epigenetics includes processes such as methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, sumolyation, and ubiquitylation which can be transmitted to daughter cells upon cell division (1).Methylation, for example, is the attachment of simple methyl group tags to DNA molecules, which can repress transcription of a gene when it occurs in the region of a gene promoter. This simple methyl group, or a carbon bound to three hydrogen molecules, effectively turns the gene off.
Post-translational modifications of histone proteins is another epigenetic process. Histones help to package and condense the DNA double helix into the cell nucleus in a complex called chromatin, which can be modified by enzymes, acetyl groups, and forms of RNA called small interfering RNAs and microRNAs (1). These chemical modifications of chromatin influence its three-dimensional structure, which in turn governs its accessibility for DNA transcription and dictates whether genes are expressed or not.
We inherit one allele, or variant, of each gene from our mother and the other from our father. If the result of epigenetic processes is imprinting, a phenomenon where one of the two alleles of a gene pair is turned off, this can generate a deleterious health outcome if the expressed allele is defective or increases our susceptibility to infections or toxicants (1). Studies link cancers of nearly all types, neurobehavioral and cognitive dysfunction, respiratory illnesses,autoimmune disorders, reproductive anomalies, and cardiovascular disease to epigenetic mechanisms (1). For example, the cardiac antiarrhythmic drug procainamide and the antihypertensive agent hydralazine can cause lupus in some people by causing aberrant patterns of DNA methylation and disrupting signaling pathways (1).
Genes Load the Gun, Environment Pulls the Trigger
Pharmaceuticals, however, are not the only agents that can induce epigenetic disturbances. Whether you were born via vaginal birth or Cesarean section, breastfed or bottle-fed, raised with a pet in the house, or infected with certain childhood illnesses all influence your epigenetic expression. Whether you are sedentary, pray, smoke, mediate, do yoga, have an extensive network of social support or are alienated from your community—all of your lifestyle choices play into your risk for disease operating through mechanisms of epigenetics.
In fact, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) states that genetics account for only 10% of disease, with the remaining 90% owing to environmental variables (2). An article published in the Public Library of Science One (PLoS One) entitled "Genetic factors are not the major causes of chronic diseases” echoes these claims, citing that chronic disease is only 16.4% genetic, and 84.6% environmental (3). These concepts make sense in light of research on the exposome, the cumulative measure of all the environmental insults an individual incurs during their life course that determines susceptibility to disease (4)
In delineating the totality of exposures to which an individual is subjected over their lifetime, the exposome can be subdivided into three overlapping and intertwined domains. One segment of the exposome called the internal environment is comprised of processes innate to the body which impinge on the cellular milieu. This encompasses hormones and other cellular messengers, oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, bodily morphology, the gut microbiota,aging and biochemical stress (5).
Another portion of the exposome, the specific external environment, consists of exposures including pathogens, radiation, chemical contaminants and pollutants, and medical interventions, as well as dietary, lifestyle, and occupational elements (5). At an even broader sociocultural and ecological level is the segment of the exposome called the general external environment, which may circumscribe factors such as psychological stress, socioeconomic status, geopolitical variables, educational attainment, urban or rural residence, and climate (5).
Transgenerational Inheritance of Epigenetic Change: Endocrine Disruptors Trigger Infertility in Future Generations
Scientists formerly speculated that epigenetic changes disappear with each new generation during gametogenesis, the formation of sperm and ovum, and after fertilization. However, this theory was first challenged by research published in the journal Science which demonstrated that transient exposure of pregnant rats to the insecticide methoxychlor, an estrogenic compound, or the fungicide vinclozolin, an antiandrogenic compound, resulted in increased incidence of maleinfertility and decreased sperm production and viability in 90% of the males of four subsequent generations that were tracked (1).
Most notably, these reproductive effects were associated with derangements in DNA methylation patterns in the germ line, suggesting that epigenetic changes are passed on to future generations. The authors concluded, “The ability of an environmental factor (for example, endocrine disruptor) to reprogram the germ line and to promote a transgenerational disease state has significant implications for evolutionary biology and disease etiology” (6, p. 1466). This may suggest that the endocrine-disrupting, fragrance-laden personal care products and commercial cleaning supplies to which we are all exposed may trigger fertility problems in multiple future generations.
Transgenerational Inheritance of Traumatic Episodes: Parental Experience Shapes Traits of Offspring
In addition, traumatic experiences may be transmitted to future generations via epigenetics as a way to inform progeny about salient information needed for their survival (7). In one study, researchers wafted the cherry-like chemical acetophenone into the chambers of mice while administering electric shocks, conditioning the mice to fear the scent (7). This reaction was passed onto two successive generations, which shuddered significantly more in the presence of acetophenone despite never having encountered it compared to descendants of mice that had not received this conditioning (7).
The study suggests that certain characteristics of the parental sensory environment experienced before conception can remodel the sensory nervous system and neuroanatomy in subsequently conceived generations (7). Alterations in brain structures that process olfactory stimuli were observed, as well as enhanced representation of the receptor that perceives the odor compared to control mice and their progeny (7). These changes were conveyed by epigenetic mechanisms, as illustrated by evidence that the acetophenone-sensing genes in fearful mice were hypomethylated, which may have enhanced expression of odorant-receptor genes during development leading to acetophenone sensitivity (7).
The Human Experience of Famine and Tragedy Spans Generations
The mouse study, which illustrates how germ cells (egg and sperm) exhibit dynamic plasticity and adaptability in response to environmental signals, is mirrored by human studies. For instance, exposures to certain stressors such as starvation during the gestational period are associated with poor health outcomes for offspring. Women who undergo famine before conception of her offspring have been demonstrated to give birth to children with lower self-reported mental health and quality of life, for example (8).
Studies similarly highlight that, “Maternal famine exposure around the time of conception has been related to prevalence of major affective disorders, antisocial personality disorders,schizophrenia, decreased intracranial volume, and congenital abnormalities of the central nervous system” (8). Gestational exposure to the Dutch Famine of the mid-twentieth century is also associated with lower perceived health (9), as well as enhanced incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and obesity in offspring (8). Maternal undernourishment during pregnancy leads to neonatal adiposity, which is a predictor of future obesity (10), in the grandchildren (11).
The impact of epigenetics is also exemplified by research on the intergenerational effects of trauma, which illuminates that descendants of people who survived the Holocaust exhibit abnormal stress hormone profiles, and low cortisol production in particular (12). Because of their impaired cortisol response and altered stress reactivity, children of Holocaust survivors are often at enhanced risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression (13).
Intrauterine exposure to maternal stress in the form of intimate partner violence during pregnancy can also lead to changes in the methylation status of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) of their adolescent offspring (14). These studies suggest that an individual’s experience of trauma can predispose their descendants to mental illness, behavioral problems, and psychological abnormalities due to “transgenerational epigenetic programming of genes operating in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,” a complex set of interactions among endocrine glands which determine stress response and resilience (14).
Body Cells Pass Genetic Information Directly Into Sperm Cells
Not only that, but studies are illuminating that genetic information can be transferred through the germ line cells of a species in real time. These paradigm-shifting findings overturn conventional logic which postulates that genetic change occurs over the protracted time scale of hundreds of thousands or even millions of years. In a relatively recent study, exosomes were found to be the medium through which information was transferred from somatic cells to gametes.
This experiment entailed xenotransplantation, a process where living cells from one species are grafted into a recipient of another species. Specifically, human melanoma tumor cells genetically engineered to express genes for a fluorescent tracer enzyme called EGFP-encoding plasmid were transplanted into mice. The experimenters found that information-containing molecules containing the EGFP tracer were released into the animals’ blood (15). Exosomes, or “specialized membranous nano-sized vesicles derived from endocytic compartments that are released by many cell types” were found among the EGFP trackable molecules (16, p. 447).
Exosomes, which are synthesized by all plant and animal cells, contain distinct protein repertoires and are created when inward budding occurs from the membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), a type of organelle that serves as a membrane-bound sorting compartment within eukaryotic cells (16). Exosomes contain microRNA (miRNA) and small RNA, types of non-coding RNA involved in regulating gene expression (16). In this study, exosomes delivered RNAs to mature sperm cells (spermatozoa) and remained stored there (15).
The researchers highlight that this kind of RNA can behave as a “transgenerational determinant of inheritable epigenetic variations and that spermatozoal RNA can carry and deliver information that cause phenotypic variations in the progeny” (15). In other words, the RNA carried to sperm cells by exosomes can preside over gene expression in a way that changes the observable traits and disease risk of the offspring as well as its morphology, development, and physiology.
This study was the first to elucidate RNA-mediated transfer of information from somatic to germ cells, which fundamentally overturns what is known as the Weisman barrier, a principle which states that the movement of hereditary information from genes to body cells is unidirectional, and that the information transmitted by egg and sperm to future generations remains independent of somatic cells and parental experience (15).
Further, this may bear implications for cancer risk, as exosomes contain vast amounts of genetic information which can be source of lateral gene transfer (17) and are abundantly liberated from tumor cells (18). This can be reconciled with the fact that exosome-resembling vesicles have been observed in various mammals (15), including humans, in close proximity to sperm in anatomical structures such as the epididymis as well as in seminal fluid (19). These exosomes may thereafter be propagated to future generations with fertilization and augment cancer risk in the offspring (20).
The researchers concluded that sperm cells can act as the final repositories of somatic cell-derived information, which suggests that epigenetic insults to our body cells can be relayed to future generations. This notion is confirmatory of the evolutionary theory of “soft inheritance” proposed by French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, whereby characteristics acquired over the life of an organism are transmitted to offspring, a concept which modern genetics previously rejected before the epigenetics arrived on the scene. In this way, the sperm are able to spontaneously assimilate exogenous DNA and RNA molecules, behaving both as vector of their native genome and of extrachromosomal foreign genetic material which is “then delivered to oocytes at fertilization with the ensuing generation of phenotypically modified animals” (15).
Epigenetic Changes Endure Longer Than Ever Predicted
In a recent study, nematode worms were manipulated to harbor a transgene for a fluorescent protein, which made the worms glow under ultraviolet light when the gene was activated (21). When the worms were incubated under the ambient temperature of 20° Celsius (68° Fahrenheit), negligible glowing was observed, indicating low activity of the transgene (21). However, transferring the worms to a warmer climate of 25°C (77° F) stimulated expression of the gene, as the worms glowed brightly (21).
In addition, this temperature-induced alteration in gene expression was found to persist for at least 14 generations, representing the preservation of epigenetic memories of environmental change across an unprecedented number of generations (21). In other words, the worms transmitted memories of past environmental conditions to their descendants, through the vehicle of epigenetic change, as a way to prepare their offspring for prevailing environmental conditions and ensure their survivability.
Future Directions: Where Do We Go From Here?
Taken cumulatively, the aforementioned research challenges traditional Mendelian laws of genetics, which postulate that genetic inheritance occurs exclusively through sexual reproduction and that traits are passed to offspring through the chromosomes contained in germ line cells, and never through somatic (bodily) cells. Effectively, this proves the existence of non-Mendelian transgenerational inheritance, where traits separate from chromosomal genes are transmitted to progeny, resulting in persistent phenotypes that endure across generations (22).
This research imparts new meaning to the principle of seven generation stewardship taught by Native Americans, which mandates that we consider the welfare of seven generations to come in each of our decisions. Not only should we embody this approach in practices of environmental sustainability, but we would be wise to consider how the conditions to which we subject our bodies—the pollution and toxicants which permeate the landscape and pervade our bodies, the nutrient-devoid soil that engenders micronutrient-poor food, the disruptions to our circadian rhythm due to the ubiquity of electronic devices, our divorce from nature and the demise of our tribal affiliations—may translate into ill health effects and diminished quality of life for a previously unfathomed number of subsequent generations.
Hazards of modern agriculture, the industrial revolution, and contemporary living are the “known or suspected drivers behind epigenetic processes…including heavy metals, pesticides, diesel exhaust, tobacco smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hormones, radioactivity, viruses, bacteria, and basic nutrients” (1, p. A160). Serendipitously, however, many inputs such asexercise, mindfulness, and bioactive components in fruits and vegetables such as sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables, resveratrol from red grapes, genistein from soy, diallyl sulphide from garlic, curcumin from turmeric, betaine from beets, and green tea catechin can favorably modify epigenetic phenomena “either by directly inhibiting enzymes that catalyze DNA methylation or histone modifications, or by altering the availability of substrates necessary for those enzymatic reactions” (23, p. 8).
This quintessentially underscores that the air we breathe, the food we eat, the thoughts we allow, the toxins to which we are exposed, and the experiences we undergo may persevere in our descendants and remain in our progeny long after we are gone. We must be cognizant of the effects of our actions, as they elicit a ripple effect through the proverbial sands of time.

References
1. Weinhold, B. (2006). Epigenetics: The Science of Change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(3), A160-A167. 
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Exposome and Exposomics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/exposome/
3. Rappaport, S.M. (2016). Genetic factors are not the major causes of chronic diseases. PLoS One, 11(4), e0154387.
4. Vrijheid, M. (2014). The exposome: a new paradigm to study the impact of environment on health. Thorax, 69(9), 876-878. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204949.
5. Wild, C.P. (2012). The exposome: from concept to utility. International Journal of Epidemiology, 41, 24–32. doi:10.1093/ije/dyr236
6. Anway, M.D. et al. (2005). Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and male fertility. Science, 308(5727), 1466-1469. 
7. Dias, B.G., & Ressler, K.J. (2014). Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generations. Nature Neuroscience, 17(1), 89-98.
8. Stein, A.D. et al. (2009). Maternal exposure to the Dutch Famine before conception and during pregnancy: quality of life and depressive symptoms in adult offspring. Epidemiology, 20(6), doi:  10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181b5f227.
9. Roseboom, T.J. et al. (2003). Perceived health of adults after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. Paediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology, 17, 391–397.
10. Badon, S.E. et al. (2014). Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Adiposity in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study-North American Region. Obesity (Silver Spring), 22(7), 1731–1738.
11. Veenendaal, M.V. et al. (2013). Transgenerational effects of prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch famine. BJOG, 120(5), 548-53. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.
12. Yehuda, R., & Bierer, L.M. (2008). Transgenerational transmission of cortisol and PTSD risk. Progress in Brain Research, 167, 121-135. 
13. Aviad-Wilcheck, Y. et al. (2013). The effects of the survival characteristics of parent Holocaust survivors on offsprings' anxiety and depression symptoms. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 50(3), 210-216. 
14. Radke, K.M. et al. (2011). Transgenerational impact of intimate partner violence on methylation in the promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor. Translational Psychiatry, 1, e21. doi: 10.1038/tp.2011.21.
15. Cossetti, C. et al. (2014). Soma-to-Germline Transmission of RNA in Mice Xenografted with Human Tumour Cells: Possible Transport by Exosomes. PLoS One,https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101629
16. Zomer, A. et al. (2010). Exosomes: Fit to deliver small RNA. Communicative and Integrative Biology, 3(5), 447–450.
17. Balaj, L. et al. (2011) Tumour microvesicles contain retrotransposon elements and amplified oncogene sequences. Natural Communications, 2, 180.
18. Azmi, A.S., Bao, B., & Sarkar, F.H. (2013). Exosomes in cancer development, metastasis, and drug resistance: a comprehensive review. Cancer Metastasis Review, 32, 623-643
19. Poliakov, A. et al. (2009). Structural heterogeneity and protein composition of exosomes-like vesicles (prostasomes) in human semen. Prostate, 69, 159-167.
20. Cheng, R.Y. et al. (2004) Epigenetic and gene expression changes related to transgenerational carcinogenesis. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 40, 1–11.
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