J Parkinsons Dis. 2015 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]
Linking Smoking, Coffee, Urate, and Parkinson's Disease - A Role for Gut Microbiota?
While the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still obscure, there is evidence for lifestyle factors influencing disease risk. Best established are the inverse associations with smoking and coffee consumption. In other contexts there is evidence that health effects of lifestyle factors may depend on gut microbiome composition. Considering the gastrointestinal involvement in PD, it was recently speculated, that the associations between smoking, coffee, and PD risk could be mediated by gut microbiota. Here we review such a possible mediatory role of gut microbiota taking into account recent findings on microbiome composition in PD and extending the scope also to urate.
Gut-brain axis; caffeine; constipation; dietary fiber; gut motility; gut permeability; inflammation; nicotine; non-motor symptoms; risk factors
PMID: 25882059 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]